[246] Historians such as William Carr, Gerhard Weinberg, and Ian Kershaw have argued that one reason for Hitler's rush to war was his fear of an early death. [156], As chancellor, Hitler worked against attempts by the Nazi Party's opponents to build a majority government. [166] Since it would affect the constitution, the Enabling Act required a two-thirds majority to pass. [38] He enrolled at the Realschule in Steyr in September 1904, where his behaviour and performance improved. Hitler had dealings with Jews while living in Vienna. [10] No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence,[11] and Jewish residency in Styria had been illegal for nearly 400 years and would not become legal again until decades after Alois' birth,[11][12] so historians dismiss the claim that Alois' father was Jewish. Laut Webseite der Organisatoren gehören Stars wie Peter Orloff, G.G. The remains of Joseph and Magda Goebbels, the six Goebbels children, General Hans Krebs, and Hitler's dogs were repeatedly buried and exhumed. Recognising the strength and determination of the Red Army, Hitler decided to use his remaining mobile reserves against the American and British troops, which he perceived as far weaker. [122] There, he received friendly treatment from the guards, and was allowed mail from supporters and regular visits by party comrades. [76] While there, Hitler learned of Germany's defeat, and—by his own account—upon receiving this news, he suffered a second bout of blindness. [118], Hitler fled to the home of Ernst Hanfstaengl and by some accounts contemplated suicide. [207], Germany reoccupied the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland in March 1936, in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Er stellte sein Studium zugunsten der Musik zurück. A speech to the Industry Club in Düsseldorf on 27 January 1932 won him support from many of Germany's most powerful industrialists. [405] According to Kershaw, it is better to take a broader view of German history by examining what social forces led to the Nazi dictatorship and its policies rather than to pursue narrow explanations for the Holocaust and World War II based on only one person. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. [330][331] By 1970, the facility was under the control of the KGB and scheduled to be relinquished to East Germany. [369] He entrusted Bormann with his paperwork, appointments, and personal finances; Bormann used his position to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. France and Germany signed an armistice on 22 June. Hitler wanted to emulate Benito Mussolini's "March on Rome" of 1922 by staging his own coup in Bavaria, to be followed by a challenge to the government in Berlin. [378] Paula Hitler, the younger sister of Hitler and the last living member of his immediate family, died in June 1960. [80] Like other German nationalists, he believed the Dolchstoßlegende (stab-in-the-back myth), which claimed that the German army, "undefeated in the field", had been "stabbed in the back" on the home front by civilian leaders, Jews, Marxists, and those who signed the armistice that ended the fighting—later dubbed the "November criminals". [195], Hitler's government sponsored architecture on an immense scale. [55] While Hitler states in Mein Kampf that he first became an anti-Semite in Vienna,[56] Reinhold Hanisch, who helped him sell his paintings, disagrees. For Hitler, though, the most important aspect of it was its strong anti-Semitic stance. [225] Henlein's party responded to Beneš' offer by instigating a series of violent clashes with the Czechoslovakian police that led to the declaration of martial law in certain Sudeten districts. [313][314] On 28 April Hitler discovered that Himmler, who had left Berlin on 20 April, was trying to negotiate a surrender to the Western Allies. He was involved and appeared in a series of propaganda films throughout his political career, many made by Leni Riefenstahl, regarded as a pioneer of modern filmmaking. Hitler continued to face some opposition within the Nazi Party. According to Hitler's ideology, the only solution was their extermination. The records of the Wannsee Conference, held on 20 January 1942 and led by Heydrich, with fifteen senior Nazi officials participating, provide the clearest evidence of systematic planning for the Holocaust. [383], Historian John S. Conway states that Hitler was fundamentally opposed to the Christian churches. [145][375] He met his lover, Eva Braun, in 1929,[376] and married her on 29 April 1945, one day before they both committed suicide. [318][e] Later that afternoon, Hitler was informed that Mussolini had been executed by the Italian resistance movement on the previous day; this presumably increased his determination to avoid capture. Their corpses were burned. The meeting paved the way for the ban on the Nazi Party to be lifted on 16 February. This included the Nazis' nominal coalition partner, the DNVP; with the SA's help, Hitler forced its leader, Hugenberg, to resign on 29 June. [73], During his service at headquarters, Hitler pursued his artwork, drawing cartoons and instructions for an army newspaper. [194] The average work week increased during the shift to a war economy; by 1939, the average German was working between 47 and 50 hours a week. [281] His generals disagreed with this change, having advanced within 400 km (250 mi) of Moscow, and his decision caused a crisis among the military leadership. On 22 February, Hitler was recorded saying, "we shall regain our health only by eliminating the Jews". [119] He was depressed but calm when arrested on 11 November 1923 for high treason. [54] However, historian Brigitte Hamann describes Kubizek's claim as "problematical". Neither the army, nor the state police, joined forces with Hitler. [c][32] Hitler rebelled against this decision, and in Mein Kampf states that he intentionally did poorly in school, hoping that once his father saw "what little progress I was making at the technical school he would let me devote myself to my dream". [193] Hitler oversaw one of the largest infrastructure improvement campaigns in German history, leading to the construction of dams, autobahns, railroads, and other civil works. [342][343] During the war, Hitler repeatedly stated his prophecy of 1939 was being fulfilled, namely, that a world war would bring about the annihilation of the Jewish race. [382] He adds that Hitler felt that in the absence of organised religion, people would turn to mysticism, which he considered regressive. [150][151] Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 35 per cent of the vote in the final election. Historian and biographer Ian Kershaw describes Hitler as "the embodiment of modern political evil". [297], By late 1944, both the Red Army and the Western Allies were advancing into Germany. [251][252] Accordingly, on 22 August 1939 Hitler ordered a military mobilisation against Poland. [309] He announced that he would stay in Berlin until the end and then shoot himself. [201], Germany withdrew from the League of Nations and the World Disarmament Conference in October 1933. He was told that the attack had not been launched and that the Soviets had entered Berlin. [335][337] By January 1942, he had decided that the Jews, Slavs, and other deportees considered undesirable should be killed. Florian Silbereisen Bernhard Brink; Seit 2008 bildet Florian Silbereisen gemeinsam mit seiner Freundin Helene Fischer das Traumpaar der deutschen Schlager- und Volksmusikszene. Albert Speer, instrumental in implementing Hitler's classicist reinterpretation of German culture, was placed in charge of the proposed architectural renovations of Berlin. By November 1932, the Nazi Party had the most seats in the German Reichstag but did not have a majority. The judges were Jorge Gonzalez, Motsi Mabuse and Joachim Llambi, they judged but didn't gave points. In season one and two, her co-host was Hape Kerkeling and in season three Daniel Hartwich. [364], Hitler ruled the Nazi Party autocratically by asserting the Führerprinzip (leader principle). [317], After midnight on the night of 28–29 April, Hitler married Eva Braun in a small civil ceremony in the Führerbunker. For other uses, see, Hitler on 20 April 1945 in his last public appearance, in the garden of the Reich Chancellery, ten days before he and. The Social Democratic Party was banned and its assets seized. [352][350] Deaths took place in concentration and extermination camps, ghettos, and through mass executions. [284], On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked the American fleet based at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. He replaced the Ministry of War with the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), headed by General Wilhelm Keitel. [371] In the final months of the war Hitler refused to consider peace negotiations, regarding the destruction of Germany as preferable to surrender. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. [217] Hitler ordered an end to arms shipments to China and recalled all German officers working with the Chinese Army. [403] Historians Henrik Eberle and Hans-Joachim Neumann consider that while he suffered from a number of illnesses including Parkinson's disease, Hitler did not experience pathological delusions and was always fully aware of, and therefore responsible for, his decisions. Oktober teilnehmen möchte und gegen die Maßnahmen der Bundesregierung protestieren will. [224] As a result of intense French and British diplomatic pressure, on 5 September Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš unveiled the "Fourth Plan" for constitutional reorganisation of his country, which agreed to most of Henlein's demands for Sudeten autonomy. [191] Reconstruction and rearmament were financed through Mefo bills, printing money, and seizing the assets of people arrested as enemies of the State, including Jews. Sendung am 25. [393] This goal informed Hitler's movement early on, but he saw it as inexpedient to publicly express this extreme position. [213] He felt that a severe decline in living standards in Germany as a result of the economic crisis could only be stopped by military aggression aimed at seizing Austria and Czechoslovakia. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support. Hitler ordered Army Group Centre to temporarily halt its advance to Moscow and divert its Panzer groups to aid in the encirclement of Leningrad and Kiev. The committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party. Der erfolgreiche Schlagerstar ist seit über 40 Jahren im Geschäft und gibt teilweise bis zu 100 Konzerte im Jahr. The Nazi Party gained three posts: Hitler was named chancellor, Wilhelm Frick Minister of the Interior, and Hermann Göring Minister of the Interior for Prussia. [356], Hitler's policies resulted in the killing of nearly two million non-Jewish Polish civilians,[357] over three million Soviet prisoners of war,[358] communists and other political opponents, homosexuals, the physically and mentally disabled,[359][360] Jehovah's Witnesses, Adventists, and trade unionists. [178] With this action, Hitler eliminated the last legal remedy by which he could be removed from office. [261], The fall of Poland was followed by what contemporary journalists dubbed the "Phoney War" or Sitzkrieg ("sitting war"). Although he lost to Hindenburg, this election established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. At the same time, Hitler continued his efforts to create an Anglo-German alliance. [28] Hitler later dramatised an episode from this period when his father took him to visit a customs office, depicting it as an event that gave rise to an unforgiving antagonism between father and son, who were both strong-willed. [52], The origin and development of Hitler's anti-Semitism remains a matter of debate. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. Britain, China, Italy, and Poland were also invited to join the Anti-Comintern Pact, but only Italy signed in 1937. [433], Historian Friedrich Meinecke described Hitler as "one of the great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life". Hitler found Bülow's goals to be too modest. [181], In early 1938, Hitler used blackmail to consolidate his hold over the military by instigating the Blomberg–Fritsch affair. In 1909 Hitler ran out of money and was forced to live a bohemian life in homeless shelters and a men's dormitory. [16], Hitler was born to a practising Catholic mother and an anticlerical father; after leaving home Hitler never again attended Mass or received the sacraments. In a meeting with the Prime Minister of Bavaria Heinrich Held on 4 January 1925, Hitler agreed to respect the state's authority and promised that he would seek political power only through the democratic process. Battle Tendency (Japanese: 戦闘潮流, Hepburn: Sentō Chōryū) is the second story arc of the manga series JoJo's Bizarre Adventure written and illustrated by Hirohiko Araki.It was serialized for around 2½ years; Weekly Shōnen Jump from November 2nd, 1987 to March 20th, 1989 for 69 chapters, which were later collected into seven tankōbon volumes. He also perceived the programme as primarily a basis for propaganda and for attracting people to the party. Because of the political stalemate, he asked Hindenburg to again dissolve the Reichstag, and elections were scheduled for early March. [214] In early 1938, in the wake of the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, Hitler asserted control of the military-foreign policy apparatus, dismissing Neurath as foreign minister and appointing himself as War Minister. [187], Hitler took care to give his dictatorship the appearance of legality. [263] In contrast, Greiser agreed with Himmler and carried out an ethnic cleansing campaign towards Poles. [131][132] To advance his political ambitions in spite of the ban, Hitler appointed Gregor Strasser, Otto Strasser and Joseph Goebbels to organise and enlarge the Nazi Party in northern Germany. Front page of the US Armed Forces newspaper. [70] He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914. "[301] Acting on his view that Germany's military failures meant it had forfeited its right to survive as a nation, Hitler ordered the destruction of all German industrial infrastructure before it could fall into Allied hands. . Self-translation is a translation of a source text into a target text by the writer of the source text.. Self-translation occurs in various writing situations. On 27 February 1933, the Reichstag building was set on fire. Interrupting Kahr's speech, he announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government with Ludendorff. He made his 2 million dollar fortune with Das Deutsche Schlager-Magazin, Schlager des Jahres, Wie weit willst du gehn, So oder so. The name is probably based on the German word hütte (lit., "hut"), and likely has the meaning "one who lives in a hut". Rank in the party was not determined by elections—positions were filled through appointment by those of higher rank, who demanded unquestioning obedience to the will of the leader. Ihre Schulzeit schloss sie 1994 mit dem Abitur an der Luisenschule Essen ab. In the event of his death, the conference minutes, recorded as the Hossbach Memorandum, were to be regarded as his "political testament". [211] On 25 November, Germany signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan. [130] However, after an inflammatory speech he gave on 27 February, Hitler was barred from public speaking by the Bavarian authorities, a ban that remained in place until 1927. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power! From season six the judges are Jorge Gonzalez, Motsi Mabuse and Joachim Llambi. [245] On 3 April, Hitler ordered the military to prepare for Fall Weiss ("Case White"), the plan for invading Poland on 25 August. Finden Sie Personen mit dem Nachnamen Karademir in Bielefeld in der Personensuche von Das Telefonbuch - mit privaten Informationen wie Interessen und Biografien sowie und geschäftlichen Angaben zu Berufen und Lebensläufen und mehr [259] In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September, surprising Hitler and prompting him to angrily ask Ribbentrop, "Now what? Der smago!Award wird seit 2011 verliehen. [120] His trial before the special People's Court in Munich began in February 1924,[121] and Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the Nazi Party. [395], Speer wrote that Hitler had a negative view of Himmler's and Alfred Rosenberg's mystical notions and Himmler's attempt to mythologise the SS. Gundaharius or Gundahar (d. 437), better known by his legendary names Gunther (Middle High German: Gunther) or Gunnar (Old Norse: Gunnarr), was a historical king of Burgundy in the early 5th century. On 2 May 1933, all trade unions were forced to dissolve and their leaders were arrested. [265] Hitler called Himmler's memo "good and correct",[265] and, ignoring Göring and Frank, implemented the Himmler–Greiser policy in Poland. [172] While many trade union delegates were in Berlin for May Day activities, SA stormtroopers occupied union offices around the country. [288] In December 1942 and January 1943, Hitler's repeated refusal to allow their withdrawal at the Battle of Stalingrad led to the almost total destruction of the 6th Army. For Let's Dance 2021, the two winners can choose their partners among the celebrities themselves. [372] Hitler's leadership became increasingly disconnected from reality as the war turned against Germany, with the military's defensive strategies often hindered by his slow decision making and frequent directives to hold untenable positions. [401] In a report prepared for the OSS in 1943, Walter C. Langer of Harvard University described Hitler as a "neurotic psychopath". A demagogue,[103] he became adept at using populist themes, including the use of scapegoats, who were blamed for his listeners' economic hardships. Göring blamed a communist plot, because Dutch communist Marinus van der Lubbe was found in incriminating circumstances inside the burning building. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-funded primary school) in nearby Fischlham. Hitler used the campaign slogan "Hitler über Deutschland" ("Hitler over Germany"), a reference to his political ambitions and his campaigning by aircraft. Hitler and the Nazi Party prepared to take advantage of the emergency to gain support for their party. [279][280] The invasion conquered a huge area, including the Baltic republics, Belarus, and West Ukraine. German nationalism had a particularly widespread following in the Mariahilf district, where Hitler lived. Ute Brink: Hendes berømte eks-kærester eller eks-mænd Er der nogen børn? Stattdessen unterschrieb Brink bei Hansa Records seinen ersten Plattenvertrag. Hitler was more pragmatic, and his ambitions centred on more practical concerns. [177], On 2 August 1934, Hindenburg died. [110], Early followers included Rudolf Hess, former air force ace Hermann Göring, and army captain Ernst Röhm. [438] Further, Haffner claims that other than Alexander the Great, Hitler had a more significant impact than any other comparable historical figure, in that he too caused a wide range of worldwide changes in a relatively short time span.[439]. [4] Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of about 6 million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) or socially undesirable. [57][58][59] Historian Richard J. Evans states that "historians now generally agree that his notorious, murderous anti-Semitism emerged well after Germany's defeat [in World War I], as a product of the paranoid "stab-in-the-back" explanation for the catastrophe". [84] Without formal education or career prospects, he remained in the army. [281] During this crisis, Hitler appointed himself as head of the Oberkommando des Heeres. Christian Lais (* 7. [185] Hitler assumed Blomberg's title of Commander-in-Chief, thus taking personal command of the armed forces. [37], After Alois's sudden death on 3 January 1903, Hitler's performance at school deteriorated and his mother allowed him to leave. His cabinet never met after 1938, and he discouraged his ministers from meeting independently. The hosts were again Daniel Hartwich and Victoria Swarovski. At a DAP meeting on 12 September 1919, Party Chairman Anton Drexler was impressed with Hitler's oratorical skills. On the same day Hitler proclaimed the birth of the Greater Germanic Reich, his vision of a united empire of Germanic nations of Europe in which the Dutch, Flemish, and Scandinavians were joined into a "racially pure" polity under German leadership. [70] On a recommendation by Lieutenant Hugo Gutmann, Hitler's Jewish superior, he received the Iron Cross, First Class on 4 August 1918, a decoration rarely awarded to one of Hitler's Gefreiter rank. The solo dancers and some of the couples had other dancers on the floor. The scores presented below represent the best overall accumulative average scores the celebrity gained each season. They are supported by local dance trainers. [272] By the end of September, Hitler realised that air superiority for the invasion of Britain (in Operation Sea Lion) could not be achieved, and ordered the operation postponed. [71][72] He received the Black Wound Badge on 18 May 1918. [416], Prescribed 90 medications during the war years by his personal physician, Theodor Morell, Hitler took many pills each day for chronic stomach problems and other ailments. [222] In private, Hitler considered the Sudeten issue unimportant; his real intention was a war of conquest against Czechoslovakia. 'living space') for the German people in Eastern Europe, and his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. [83], After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich. [429] Hitler's policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale;[430] according to R. J. Rummel, the Nazi regime was responsible for the democidal killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. Dieter Bohlen filled in for Ute Lemper for the season 2 final due to Lemper's scheduling conflicts. [277], On 22 June 1941, contravening the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939, over three million Axis troops attacked the Soviet Union. [203] That March, Hitler announced an expansion of the Wehrmacht to 600,000 members—six times the number permitted by the Versailles Treaty—including development of an air force (Luftwaffe) and an increase in the size of the navy (Kriegsmarine). Both were charged with membership in the Nazi Party, at that time illegal for Reichswehr personnel. ", "Hitler Planning for War and the Response of the Great Powers", "Barbarossa Revisited: A Critical Reappraisal of the Opening Stages of the Russo-German Campaign (June–December 1941)", "Holocaust Denial Laws and Other Legislation Criminalizing Promotion of Nazism", Yad Vashem. [233] In Hitler's view, the British-brokered peace, although favourable to the ostensible German demands, was a diplomatic defeat which spurred his intent of limiting British power to pave the way for the eastern expansion of Germany. The program is currently hosted by Hartwich and Austrian singer and former winner Victoria Swarovski. [310], By 23 April the Red Army had surrounded Berlin,[311] and Goebbels made a proclamation urging its citizens to defend the city. [242] Offended by the British "guarantee" on 31 March 1939 of Polish independence, he said, "I shall brew them a devil's drink". The German Luftwaffe failed to defeat the Royal Air Force in what became known as the Battle of Britain. [148] Hindenburg had support from various nationalist, monarchist, Catholic, and republican parties, and some Social Democrats. 7 Beziehungen. [180] On 19 August, the merger of the presidency with the chancellorship was approved by 88 per cent of the electorate voting in a plebiscite. Hitler forced his War Minister, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, to resign by using a police dossier that showed that Blomberg's new wife had a record for prostitution. [426] According to historian John Toland, Nazism "burst like a bubble" without its leader. Greiser soon complained that Forster was allowing thousands of Poles to be accepted as "racial" Germans and thus endangered German "racial purity". Hitler soon gained notoriety for his rowdy polemic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, and especially against Marxists and Jews. He contends that without Hitler, the de-colonisation of former European spheres of influence would have been postponed. [436] In its place emerged the Cold War, a global confrontation between the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States and other NATO nations, and the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union. [363] Hitler's early eugenic policies targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities in a programme dubbed Action Brandt, and he later authorised a euthanasia programme for adults with serious mental and physical disabilities, now referred to as Aktion T4. Acting heads of state are denoted by italics. [53] His friend, August Kubizek, claimed that Hitler was a "confirmed anti-Semite" before he left Linz. Renata and Valentin Lusin took third place, as in the previous year. These victories prompted Mussolini to have Italy join forces with Hitler on 10 June. Fall Grün (Case Green), the code name for an invasion of Czechoslovakia. On 1 November, Mussolini declared an "axis" between Germany and Italy. [214][215] Hitler urged quick action before Britain and France gained a permanent lead in the arms race. If the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevisation of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe! Sendung am 11. Gustaf Tenggren var som son till Augusta Andersdotter och Aron Tenggren, näst yngst av sju syskon, i Magra socken.Såväl fadern som farfadern, Johan Teng, försörjde sig som dekorationsmålare och i jakt på arbetstillfällen flyttade familjen 1898 till Göteborg och en enrumsbostad i Gårda.Där föddes ytterligare en son. Hitler and Ludendorff sought the support of Staatskommissar (State Commissioner) Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Bavaria's de facto ruler. [4] "Never in history has such ruination—physical and moral—been associated with the name of one man", he adds. [340] Although no direct order from Hitler authorising the mass killings has surfaced,[341] his public speeches, orders to his generals, and the diaries of Nazi officials demonstrate that he conceived and authorised the extermination of European Jewry. and democracy The group, financed with funds channelled from wealthy industrialists, introduced Hitler to the idea of a Jewish conspiracy, linking international finance with Bolshevism. [5] The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, and Alois initially bore his mother's surname, 'Schicklgruber'. Hitler asked everyone except Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Hans Krebs, and Wilhelm Burgdorf to leave the room,[308] then launched into a tirade against the treachery and incompetence of his commanders, culminating in his declaration—for the first time—that "everything was lost". [299][304], On 20 April, his 56th birthday, Hitler made his last trip from the Führerbunker (Führer's shelter) to the surface. [238] The next day, in violation of the Munich accord and possibly as a result of the deepening economic crisis requiring additional assets,[239] Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht to invade the Czech rump state, and from Prague Castle he proclaimed the territory a German protectorate. [219][220] Hitler then turned his attention to the ethnic German population of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. [128] The Austrian federal chancellor rejected the request on the specious grounds that his service in the German Army made his Austrian citizenship void. The signers urged Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as leader of a government "independent from parliamentary parties", which could turn into a movement that would "enrapture millions of people". [305] By 21 April, Georgy Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front had broken through the defences of General Gotthard Heinrici's Army Group Vistula during the Battle of the Seelow Heights and advanced to the outskirts of Berlin. [189] These elections were held in far-from-secret conditions; the Nazis threatened severe reprisals against anyone who did not vote or dared to vote no. [265] On 12 February 1940, the dispute was initially settled in favour of the Göring–Frank view, which ended the economically disruptive mass expulsions. Biografi. [176] While the international community and some Germans were shocked by the murders, many in Germany believed Hitler was restoring order.

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