Eurasia needs a united, friendly Europe" (369). The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia is a geopolitical book by Aleksandr Dugin. 4. It is necessary, therefore to create "the [subsidiary] axis Moscow-Erevan-Teheran" (352). These areas constitute China's appropriate sphere of dominance. Covering a wide range of geopolitical schools and real beliefs and problems. "Having received geopolitical access--in the first place, naval bases--on the Iranian shores," he writes, "Eurasia will enjoy full security from the strategy of the 'Anaconda ring'" (241). Moving eastward, Dugin proposes offering Germany de facto political dominance over most Protestant and Catholic states located within Central and Eastern Europe. Alexander Dugin developed his own geostrategy which he laid out in The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia (1997). In an interview given by Dugin in late July 2001, however, he backed off slightly from this position--presumably in deference to Putin's stated position on China--but only to a degree. Foundations of Geopolitics Table of Contents From the Editor INTRODUCTION The definition of “Geopolitics” Tellurocracy and Thassalocracy Geopolitical Teleology Rimland and “Borderland Regions” Geopolitics as Destiny PART 1: THE FOUNDING FATHERS OF GEOPOLITICS Chapter 1. And as for the remaining parts of Georgia? In Dugin's opinion, all of the states of the "Orthodox collectivist East" with time will seek to establish binding ties to "Moscow the Third Rome," thus rejecting the snares of the "rational-individualistic West" (389, 393). Under, Vladimir Putin, the newspaper continued, Dugin had become "one of the drafters of the concept of national security." Chapter 2: What are “Russian National Interests”? The author of this six-hundred-page program for the eventual rule of ethnic Russians over the lands extending "from Dublin to Vladisvostok," Aleksandr Gel'evich Dugin, was born in 1962, the son, grandson, and great-grandson of Russian military officers. Verkhovskii and Pribylovskii, 50. From the point of view of geopolitics, civilization and its specifics are generally strictly determined by geography and are subject to special qualitative laws with necessity. The titular co-chairmen of the conference were Seleznev (who did not attend) and Sheikh Talgat Tadzhuddin, the officially recognized head of the Muslims of Russia and the CIS states. For Dugin's take on the events of September 11, see his "Lastochki, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies,,,, ( Log Out /  During a visit to Moscow in May of 2001, President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela "indicated that he and Putin share a vision of a world in which power must be more evenly distributed to offset the unipolar influence of the United States, and that his dream of a 'Bolivaran Federation' of Caribbean and Latin American nations fits into that scheme." 3. Delen. PART I: The Founding Fathers of Geopolitics. The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia is a geopolitical book by Alexander Dugin. 49. For future expansion purposes, Japan is to be encouraged to impose "its own 'new order,' which it planned to carry out in the 1930s, in the Pacific Ocean" (277). ABBYY … "The task of Eurasia," Dugin emphasizes, "consists in making sure such a [sanitary] cordon does not exist" (370). He underlines: "Tibet-Sinkiang-Mongolia-Manchuria taken together comprise a security belt of Russia" (363). While there, he strengthened ties with leading figures of the European New Right, such as Frenchman Alain de Benoist and Belgian Jean-Francois Thiriart. Concerning Dugin's journal, Aleksandr Verkhovskii and Vladimir Pribylovskii have noted: "In speaking of Elementy, one should not forget that half of each issue is comprised of 'geopolitical notebooks' containing articles about the global opposition of various civilizations, primarily Russia and the West." It can be read here: His isolationist platform, as well as charming ability to pit Americans against each other along racial and religious lines, make him the perfect orange tornado of destabilization. One perceptive observer of the Russian political scene, Francoise Thom, noted as far back as 1994 that fascism, and especially its “Eurasianist” variant, was already at that time displacing Russian nationalism among statist Russian elites as a post-communist “Russian Idea,” especially in the foreign policy sphere. [1] KALININGRAD OBLAST COULD BE GIVEN BACK TO GERMANY. Commenting on this burgeoning relationship, journalist Andrei Kolesnikov remarked: "Extreme right ideology is not only turning into the dominant view in Russian publications and state rhetoric, it is also becoming fashionable in a salon sense." See "Rossiya, Germaniya i drugie," Elementy, 1 (1992): 22-25. Ukraine should not be allowed to remain independent, unless it is cordon sanitaire, which would be inadmissible. This ethnic model, Dugin notes, is quite similar to that of the former Soviet Union. Any such comments may be removed or refactored. 41. A "special status," on the other hand, should be accorded to both Latvia and Lithuania, which suggests that they are to be allocated to the Eurasian-Russian sphere. Andrei P. Tsygankov "Hard Line Eurasianism and Russian Contemporary Geopolitical Perspectives." Hitler disregarded the advice of Karl Haushofer and other specialists when he decided to invade the Soviet Union in 1941. Thiriart earlier had advocated the formation of a new "Holy Alliance" of the USSR and Europe aimed at constructing a "Euro-Soviet Empire," which would stretch from Vladivostok to Dublin and would also need to expand to the south, "since it required a port on the Indian Ocean." Like the United States, the People's Republic of China is seen as constituting an enormous danger for Eurasia-Russia. The most ambitious and complex part of Dugin's program concerns the South, where the focal point is a Moscow-Teheran axis. As has been noted, Dugin also reportedly enjoys close ties to elements in the presidential administration, the secret services, the military, and the parliament. The result of such a rebuilding effort would be "a giant continental state in the administration of which they [Russians] will play the central role" (253). We call for her immediate release. In this book the author is summing up most important tendencies and trends in the field of geopolitics and (partly) geostrategic. In a broader sense, geopolitics studies the general relations between countries on a global scale. In 1989, taking advantage of increased opportunities to visit the West, Dugin spent most of the year traveling to Western European countries. The integration of swaths of Western and Central European territory into a German sphere of dominance will be encouraged directly and abetted by Eurasia-Russia. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. held at the Presidential Hotel in Moscow. Azerbaijan represents one example of how the trio Eurasia-Russia, Iran, and Armenia might choose to divide up the spoils. (He is said to have mastered at least nine of them.) How is a revived Eurasian--Russian empire to bring about "the geopolitical defeat of the U.S." (260)? Retiring from the SVR in 1995, he had become a consultant on issues relating to the Caucasus for Duma speaker Seleznev, which had provided him with an opportunity to meet Dugin, who was advising Seleznev on geopolitical questions. Dugin notes that another important ally of Eurasia-Russia will be India, which, like Japan, will be invited to join Russia in efforts to contain and perhaps dismember China. There will be a Eurasian millennium." (243). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. It was noted that Dmitrii Ryurikov, a leading adviser to President Yeltsin on foreign affairs, and currently the Russian ambassador to Uzbekistan, had agreed to become a member of "Eurasia's" Central Council. In a moment of exultant imperial elan, Dugin revealingly trumpets at one point in his book, "The battle for the world rule of [ethnic] Russians has not ended" (213). In that same year, he published his Foundations of Geopolitics, one of the more influential works of the post- communist period. 1. 29. Beginning in 1989, it became clear that "no- one in the Soviet leadership was capable of explaining the logic of traditional [Soviet] foreign policy and, as a result, there took place the lightning-fast destruction of the gigantic Eurasian organism ..." (95). 11, In 1991-1992, Prokhanov and Dugin attempted to form an alliance between certain leaders of the European New Right and several department heads and professors at the Academy of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces. Clover.21. 35, In his address to the founding congress of "Eurasia," Dugin expressed his gratitude to "the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation," for its assistance, before also thanking the Moscow Patriarchate, the Central Spiritual Administration for the Muslims of Russia, and other organizations. Students will analyze the effects of globalization upon the world geopolitical system, including the roles, influence, and interactions of both state and non-state actors by performing social science research and analysis within the context of geopolitical strategy. He has written a lot of books, but the most relevant one is Foundations of Geopolitics. My references are to the 1997 edition. The State as a Spatial Organism. In this connection, the following report is of interest. Although Dugin's ideas and prescriptions are indeed extreme, dangerous, and repellent, it should be emphasized that they are very much in the tradition of the writings of interwar fascists and adherents of the European Nouvelle Droite. POL-450: Foundations of Geopolitics is offered online by Indiana Wesleyan University. The extensive stretch of territory lying to the south of the Russian Federation is to be divvied up with a future Iranian Empire and with Armenia as well. All of this comprises Eurasian strategic space broadly understood." Alexander Dugin, The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia (Moscow: Arktogeia, 2000), Chapter 2: Tellurocracy and Thalassocracy, PART I: The Founding Fathers of Geopolitics, Chapter 1: Friedrich Ratzel: States as Spatial Organisms, Chapter 2: Rudolf Kjellén and Friedrich Naumann: “Middle Europe”, Chapter 3: Halford Mackinder: The Geographical Pivot of History, Chapter 5: Vidal de la Blache: France vs. Germany, Chapter 6: Nicholas Spykman: Revising Mackinder and the Centrality of Rimland, Chapter 7: Karl Haushofer: The Continental Bloc, Chapter 8: Carl Schmitt: Behemoth vs. Leviathan, Chapter 9: Petr Savitsky: Eurasia, Middle Earth, Chapter 10: Geopolitics as an Instrument of National Politics, PART II: Modern Geopolitical Theories and Schools from the Mid-Late 20th Century, Chapter 5: The Geopolitics of the European New Right, BOOK II: The Geopolitical Future of Russia, Chapter 1: The Need for a Radical Alternative. If such a dismemberment should not occur, however, Turkey, like China, must be encouraged to expand exclusively southward, "into the Arab world through Baghdad, Damascus, and Riyadh" (244). Transkaspiiskii proekt: informat-siono-. 7, In 1991, the year that witnessed the end of the USSR, Dugin made the acquaintance of an important neo-fascist writer with ties to elements in the Russian military, Aleksandr Prokhanov, whose journal Den' (subsequently renamed Zavtra), served as a key sounding-board for the "red-brown opposition." Change ), Alexander Dugin: NOOMAKHIA – The Noology of the Ancient Chinese Tradition, The Radical Subject: Alexander Dugin on the Origins of His Philosophy. It should be noted that on June 19, 2001, a rival organization of "Eurasians," headed by state Duma deputy Abdul- Vakhed Niyazov, held a founding congress for a new Eurasian Party of Russia (EPR). Copyright Complaints, out Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, a Soviet military chief of staff in the early 1980s, as "an outstanding geopolitician, strategist, and Eurasian." 48 As a result of such unrelenting destabilization efforts, the United States and its close ally Britain eventually will be forced to leave the shores of Eurasia (and Africa). It is of utmost importance that we Westerners revisit geopolitics as well, albeit embracing Mackinder, Mahan, Spykman, Grygiel and Strausz-Hupe, while rejecting the likes of Dugin, Haushofer and Kjellen. In the Foundations of Geopolitics Dugin provides a detailed history of the genesis of geopolitics as a science, from the “founding fathers” to contemporary theories, i.e. Talk:Foundations of Geopolitics. 6. And this support, according to our sources, is not small. THE BOOK USES THE TERM “MOSCOW-BERLIN AXIS”. 12, The commander of the General Staff Academy, General Igor' Rodionov, was reported to be "particularly well-disposed toward Dugin," and Dugin's ideas evidently continued to enjoy his support once he became Russian Defense Minister in 1996-1997. Andrei Kolesnikov "Posle podvodnoi lodki," Izvestiya, August 29, 2000. Découvrez Foundations of Geopolitics de Forecaster sur Amazon Music. This an online English version of Foundations of Geopolitics (Основы геополитики / Osnovy Geopolitiki), by author Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin. 18. In order to facilitate the recreation of a vast Russian-dominated continental empire, Dugin advocates the unleashing of Russian nationalist sentiment, but of a specific type. Aleksandr Dugin’s Foundations of Geopolitics. those from the second half of 20 th Century (FG, 39 – 147). 14, The General Staff Academy and GRU's interest in geopolitics and Eurasianism reached back some forty years. Discussion The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia self. "Stenogramma ..."37. 48. As one of his contributions, Dugin completed a translation of a book by the Italian pagan- fascist philosopher Julius Evola. Here and subsequently, the page numbers given in parentheses refer to the 1997 edition of Dugin's book. Tadzhuddin is recognized by a minority of the forty Muslim administrations in Russia, but he can boast of "not at all bad connections with the [Russian] special services," with whom he has been cooperating since taking up his current post in 1980. This slogan encapsulates one of Dugin's most cherished beliefs. Chapter 2: Tellurocracy and Thalassocracy . De publicatie ervan in 1997 werd goed ontvangen in Rusland. The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia - English Translation eBook: Dugin, A: Kindle Store Select Your Cookie Preferences We use cookies and similar tools to enhance your shopping experience, to provide our services, understand how customers use our services so we can make improvements, and display ads, including interest-based ads. 13. A number of well-known leaders of Muslim background in Russia and in CIS states, on the other hand, have offered support for the EPR. The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia is a geopolitical book by Alexander Dugin. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The German National Bolshevik Ernst Niekisch had "advocated a German-Russian alliance against the West., June 4, 2001. A negation of Atlanticism, a repudiation of the strategic control of the United States, and the rejection of the supremacy of economic, liberal market values--this represents the common civilizational basis, the common impulse which will prepare the way for a strong political and strategic union" (216). To induce the Anaconda to release its grip on the coastline of Eurasia, it must be attacked relentlessly on its home territory, within its own hemisphere, and throughout Eurasia. In an interview with the Krasnoyarsk division of Ekho Moskvy Radio on July 25, 2001, Dugin, commenting on Putin's role at the recent G-8 meetings in Genoa, affirmed, "It is my impression that in the international sphere Putin is splendidly realizing the Eurasian political model." 33 "Dugin is already being perceived," the weekly Obshchaya gazeta observed, "not as the preacher of an ideological sect but as an officially recognized specialist on geopolitical questions." 16. He believes that this could happen unexpectedly, as occurred with the sudden collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR. Samenvatting. 5. Dugin recommends that the Kuriles be restored to Japan as Kaliningrad is to be restored to Germany (238). As for the former union republics of the USSR situated within Europe, they all, in Dugin's view, (with the exception of Estonia) should be absorbed by Eurasia-Russia. Grigorii Osterman "Esli vakhkhabizm ne sdaetsya, ego ipravlyayut," June 28, 2001,,. 1.1 Background: The German “Organic … Dugin speculates that three extreme western regions of Ukraine--Volynia, Galicia, and Trans- Carpathia--heavily populated with Uniates and other Catholics, could be permitted to form an independent "Western Ukrainian Federation." Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Foundations of geopolitics english ROMANIAN TRADUCTION The book is a Russian manual on geopolitics. Foundations Of Geopolitics English. It systematically and detailed the basics of geopolitics as a science, its theory, history. It is necessary to speak the unvarnished truth. To read this article as a PDF, click here. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995), 169-177. This name was borrowed from the publishing house of German racist writer Guido von List (1848-1918). It should be noted that in the lengthy postscript section appended to the 1999 version of Foundations of Geopolitics, Dugin reaffirms his belief in the need for Eurasia-Russia to effect a dismembering of China (781). ( Log Out /  3.2. Employing the "strategy of the Anaconda" (a term borrowed by Dugin from inter-war German geopoliticians used in reference to Britain), the United States and its close allies are seen as exerting. All italics appearing within quotations are those of Dugin. Foundations of Geopolitics | The book is the first Russian-language textbook on geopolitics. Samenvatting. "The Heartland therefore is required to pay back Sea Power in the same coin" (367). "If Azerbaijan," Dugin warns, "maintains its [present] pro-Turkish orientation, then that 'country' will be split up among Iran, Russia, and Armenia. Pavlovskii, the creator of several influential pro-Kremlin Web sites, agreed. Dugin and The Foundations of Geopolitics. "In relation to the South," he writes, "the 'geopolitical axis of history' [Russia] has only one imperative--geopolitical expansion to the shores of the Indian Ocean" (341). Financial Times, December 12, 2000. Dugin and his "system," it seems, resemble the combustible interwar period and the rise of fascism in Europe, with the lurid … 46. Its publication in 1997 was well received in Russia. Please limit discussion to improvement of this article. comment. 24. (Reuters) – The Open Society Foundations, a philanthropic organisation founded by billionaire George Soros, called on Tuesday for the immediate release of a staff member held in Myanmar and said allegations of financial misconduct were false. According to Dugin, a key reason for concluding a Grand Alliance with Iran is Russia's need for a Muslim ally in its struggle against secular Turkey and "Islamic Saudi Arabia" with its dangerous Wahhabism. Mongolia is seen as constituting "a strategic ally of Russia" and is to be absorbed directly into Eurasia-Russia (363). Auteur: A Dugin A Dugin. Such a repudiation would be tantamount to national suicide" (197). Discussion The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia self. In 1987, during Gorbachev's second year of rule, Dugin was in his mid-twenties and emerged as a leader of the notorious anti-Semitic Russian nationalist organization, Pamyat', headed by photographer Dmitrii Vasil'ev. In a broader sense, geopolitics studies the general relations between countries on a global scale. Word count: 7973Copyright HELDREF PUBLICATIONS Jan 31, 2004, Learn more about how your support makes a difference or make a gift now, © Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. An appropriate response to the looming Atlanticist threat, Dugin contends, is for the renascent Eurasian-Russian empire to direct all of its powers (short of igniting a hot war), as well as those of the remainder of humanity, against the Atlanticist Anaconda. 41, "What induces the regime to seek a new ideology in Eurasianism?" "The entire gigantic edifice of Atlanticism," Dugin prophesies, "will collapse" (259). 30. Foundations of Geopolitics was written during the time that Rodionov was serving as defense minister. those from the second half of 20 th Century (FG, 39 – 147). The Atlanticists themselves see the Islamic world, on the whole, as their potential opponent" (239). "The maximum task [of the future]," he underscores, "is the 'Finlandization' of all of Europe" (369). Here we analyse local events in terms of the bigger, global picture. With regard to the future of Europe, Dugin writes: "The task of Moscow is to tear Europe away from the control of the U.S. (NATO), to assist European unification, and to strengthen ties with Central Europe under the aegis of the fundamental external axis Moscow-Berlin. Dugin’s ideas became a ‘virus’, as he put it. Unless otherwise indicated, the biographical information on Dugin provided in this paper comes from Stephen Shenfield, Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements (Armonk, NY: M.E. Drawing on the extensive twentieth-century literature on geopolitics--and especially on the interwar German school of Karl Haushofer--Dugin posits a primordial, dualistic conflict between "Atlanticism" (seafaring states and civilizations, such as the United States and Britain) and "Eurasianism" (land- based states and civilizations, such as Eurasia-Russia). "Control over the Caucasus," Dugin notes at one point in the book, "opens ... an exit to the 'warm seas'" (349). 14 The General Staff Academy and GRU's interest in geopolitics and Eurasianism reached back some forty years. 20 Perhaps due in part to such high-level input, "Dugin's geopolitical ideas [as expressed in Foundations] are clearly much more influential than are the other more openly mystical and esoteric sides of his philosophy." See Novye izvestiiya (June 30, 2001 and July 27, 2001); Nezavisimaya gazeta (June 8, 2001 and July 31, 2001); (June 19, 2001); Moskovskii komsomolets (August 3, 2001); and NG-religii (August 8, 2001). First a Russian geopolitical doctrine. Dugin claims that it includes "the Caucasus [all of it]"; "the eastern and northern shores of the Caspian (the territories of Kazakhstan and Turkmeniya)"; "Central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirgiziya and Tajikistan"; plus "Mongolia." 391 Views . It systematically and detailed the basics of geopolitics as a science, its theory, history. Charles Clover, "Will the Russian bear roar again?" Such an emphasis, he believes, should--together with a persistent focus on the glorious past and bright future of the Russian nation--help bring about the "demographic upsurge" so desperately needed by Russians today. It has no particular cultural import or universal significance, no geographic uniqueness, no ethnic exclusiveness" (377). As in the case of Germany, Japan is to be offered an imperial Grand Bargain. On the one hand, the concept itself seems to have become customary and is actively used in modern politics. 49. Halford Mackinder, “The Geographical Pivot of History”. There is a need, Dugin insists, for the "total churchification" of Russians, for the Russian nation to become viewed simply as "the Church" (255-256). Dugin believes the Atlanticists (especially the United States) consciously plotted the downfall of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR. "Beginning in the 1950s," Francoise Thorn remarked, "Soviet strategists like General Shtemenko and Admiral Gorshkov were inspired by Eurasianist thinking." Foreword to Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia (Arktogeya, Moscow: 2000) Foreword. Foundations of Geopolitics has been listed as a level-5 vital article in Arts. "The Armenians," Dugin underscores with approval, "are an Aryan people ... [like] the Iranians and the Kurds" (243). They were reprinted in dozens of similar manuals and textbooks, all of which devoted themselves to the theories … Découvrez Foundations of Geopolitics de Shortwave Research Group sur Amazon Music. His current research focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, Russian politics since 1985, Russia and the successor states of the former Soviet Union, Russian nationalism, and the politics of religion in Russia. See "Stenogramma raboty uchreditel'nogo s'ezda Obshcherossiiskogo Politicheskogo Obshchestvennogo Dvizheniya 'Evraziya,' 21 aprelya 2001," at. 40. Chapter 3: Geopolitical Teleology . "This [Russian] nationalism," he writes, "should not employ state but, rather, cultural-ethnic terminology, with a special emphasis on such categories as 'Narodnost" and 'Russian Orthodoxy'" (255). China, he maintains, is a danger to Russia both "as a geopolitical base for Atlanticism and by itself, as a country with heightened demographic compactness in quest of 'no man's land'" (360).

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