"Bilingual education and the survival of the Maori language". Biggs proposed that historically there were two major dialect groups, North Island and South Island, and that South Island Māori is extinct. and Mea, so-and-so.[100]. "Kia ora" (literally "be healthy") is a widely adopted greeting of Māori origin, with the intended meaning of "hello". ), and tētahi, (a certain). [98], Stative bases serve as bases usable as verbs but not available for passive use, such as ora, alive or tika, correct. However, the number of speakers In the same census, Māori speakers were 3.7 per cent of the total population. (1993). Dealings with government agencies may be conducted in Māori, but in practice, this almost always requires interpreters, restricting its everyday use to the limited geographical areas of high Māori fluency, and to more formal occasions, such as during public consultation. Verbal particles indicate aspectual, tense related or modal properties of the verb to which they relate to. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [109], Demonstratives occur after the noun and have a deictic function, and include tēnei, this (near me), tēnā, that (near you), tērā, that (far from us both), and taua, the aforementioned (anaphoric). Many other words such as "whānau" (meaning "family") and "kai" (meaning "food") are also widely understood and used by New Zealanders. Other major Eastern Polynesian languages include Hawaiian, Marquesan (languages in the Marquesic subgroup), and the Rapa Nui language of Easter Island.[40][41][42]. In Sutton (Ed. "Does Māori have a closest relative?" /ɾ/ is typically a flap, especially before /a/. The active form of this sentence is rendered as: Kua hanga ngā tohunga i te marae (The experts have built the marae). At least until the 1930s, the bilabial fricative was considered to be the correct pronunciation. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern—who gave her daughter a Māori middle name—made headlines when she toasted Commonwealth leaders in 2018 with a Māori proverb, and the success of Māori musical groups such as Alien Weaponry and Maimoa further increased the language's presence in social media. The personal pronouns have a distinction in clusivity, singular, dual and plural numbers,[89] and the genitive pronouns have different classes (a class, o class and neutral) according to whether the possession is alienable or the possessor has control of the relationship (a category), or the possession is inalienable or the possessor has no control over the relationship (o category), and a third neutral class that only occurs for singular pronouns and must be followed by a noun.[90]. Attempts to write Māori words using the Latin script began with Captain James Cook and other early explorers, with varying degrees of success. [2][11] The Māori-language spelling ⟨Māori⟩ (with a macron) has become common in New Zealand English in recent years, particularly in Māori-specific cultural contexts,[10][12] although the traditional English spelling is still prevalent in general media and government use. Failure to notify in advance does not preclude the party speaking in Māori, but the court must be adjourned until an interpreter is available and the party may be held liable for the costs of the delay. Even many of those people no longer spoke Māori in their homes. Definitives include the articles te (singular) and ngā (plural)[107] and the possessive prepositions tā and tō. [7] They visited Professor Samuel Lee at Cambridge University and assisted him in the preparation of a grammar and vocabulary of Māori. 123–135. Other symbol systems are musical notation and dance notation, wherein graphic symbols designate musical pitches and other features of musical performance and the movements of formalized dances. However, this could just be due to more Māori immigrants leaving to Australia.[48]. In such situations the so-called pidgins arise, more or less purposely made up of vocabulary items from each language, with mutual abandonment of grammatical complexities that would cause confusion to either party. Beside monophthongs Māori has many diphthong vowel phonemes. [123] Each example of a negative phrase is presented with its analogue positive phrase for comparison. [9] Māori distinguishes between long and short vowels; modern written texts usually mark the long vowels with a macron. Although they do not involve speech sounds, they have their own grammar, syntax, and morphology. The Māori embraced literacy enthusiastically, and missionaries reported in the 1820s that Māori all over the country taught each other to read and write, using sometimes quite innovative materials in the absence of paper, such as leaves and charcoal, and flax. Te Taura Whiri should function as a Crown–Māori partnership through the equal appointment of Crown and Māori appointees to its board. Bauer, Winifred; Evans, Te Kareongawai & Parker, William (2001). First languages arising in this way from artificially created pidgins are called creoles. From 1814, missionaries tried to define the sounds of the language. D. the languages of cultivators in Papua New Guinea and foragers in Australia had more basic color terms than did European and Asian languages. The general usage of kāhore can be seen in the following examples. A protester gesturing at a police officer in Male, Maldives, 2012. Thomas Kendall published a book in 1815 entitled A korao no New Zealand, which in modern orthography and usage would be He Kōrero nō Aotearoa. In New Zealand, the Māori language is often referred to as te reo [tɛ ˈɾɛ.ɔ] ('the language'), short for te reo Māori. Missionaries arriving from about 1814 learned to speak Māori, and introduced the Latin alphabet. Noun bases include those bases that can take a definite article, but cannot occur as the nucleus of a verbal phrase; for example: ika (fish) or rākau (tree). This occurs because the restricted uses to which pidgins were first put and for which they were devised did not require any great flexibility. For example, "Presbyterian" has been borrowed as Perehipeteriana; no consonant position in the loanword has been deleted, but /s/ and /b/ have been replaced with /h/ and /p/, respectively. Some of these phonemes occupy large spaces in the anatomical vowel triangle (actually a trapezoid) of tongue positions. Māori writer Hare Hongi (Henry Stowell) used macrons in his Maori-English Tutor and Vade Mecum of 1911,[55] as does Sir Āpirana Ngata (albeit inconsistently) in his Maori Grammar and Conversation (7th printing 1953). Benton, N. (1989). [27] Some Māori children who spoke Te Reo at school were physically disciplined which contributed to the decline in the Te Reo language in the 1940s to 1980s. [43] Māori actors, travelling to Easter Island for production of the film Rapa-Nui noticed a marked similarity between the native tongues, as did arts curator Reuben Friend, who noted that it took only a short time to pick up any different vocabulary and the different nuances to recognisable words. It has the plural pronouns: mātou (we, exc), tātou (we, inc), koutou (you), rātou (they). The related adverbs are nei (here), nā (there, near you), rā (over there, near him).[110]. ", "Mātauranga hangarau – information technology – Māori language on the internet", "Why Stuff is introducing macrons for te reo Māori words", "Seven Sharp - Why are macrons so important in te reo Māori", "Official language to receive our best efforts", "Mātauranga hangarau – information technology - Māori language on the internet", "Te Wiki o Te Reo Maaori Discovery Trail - Waikato Museum", "Māori Language Week 2017 - Hamilton City Council", "Proposed District Plan (Stage 1) 13 Definitions", "Taxes - Tax, ideology and international comparisons", Brief (200) Word Description of the Māori Language, Ngata Māori–English English–Māori Dictionary, Te Aka Māori-English, English-Māori Dictionary and Index, A Dictionary of the Maori Language by Herbert W. Williams, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Māori_language&oldid=1016645285, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Language articles with speaker number undated, Language articles without reference field, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Clark, Ross (1994). Whether your native language is English, Dutch, Spanish, French, Chinese, Italian or something completely different, chances are, you will meet an Aruban that could very easily communicate with you. Increasing numbers of Māori raise their children bilingually. 123–135. The Study of Language By George Yule 4th edition. In Sutton (Ed. This percentage has been in decline in recent years, from around a quarter of the population to 21 per cent. These settlers probably arrived by about AD 1280 (see Māori origins). Sissons, J. 106–122. Goodall and Griffiths claim that final vowels are given a centralised pronunciation as schwa or that they are elided (pronounced indistinctly or not at all), resulting in such seemingly bastardised place names as The Kilmog, which in standard Māori would have been rendered Kirimoko, but which in southern dialect would have been pronounced very much as the current name suggests. Estimates of the number of speakers vary: the 1996 census reported 160,000,[45] while other estimates have reported as few as 10,000 fluent adult speakers in 1995 according to the Māori Language Commission. Likewise, Dunedin's main research library, the Hocken Collections, has the name Uare Taoka o Hākena rather than the northern (standard) Te Whare Taonga o Hākena. /ŋ/ can come at the beginning of a word (like sing-along without the "si"), which is difficult for English speakers outside of New Zealand to manage. There are two main frameworks for assessing foreign language proficiency: the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for languages and the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL).Both are used for testing and certification as well as in textbooks, language teacher training, curriculum development and development of assessment standards. A well-known example is Tok Pisin, a creole spoken in Papua New Guinea … Qasim Paganwala. Quechua . In other circumstances, languages have been deliberately created to facilitate communication with outsiders. Creoles differ from pidgins in that, as first languages, they are subject to the natural processes of change like any other language (see below Linguistic change), and, despite the deliberately simplified form of the original pidgin, creoles develop their own complexities in the course of generations. Pronouns have singular, dual and plural number. Portuguese . The first Māori TV channel, Aotearoa Television Network (ATN) was available to viewers in the Auckland region from 1996 but lasted for only one year. Various types of such languages are employed for different purposes. [90], A phrase spoken in Māori can be broken up into two parts: the “nucleus” or "head" and “periphery” (modifiers, determiners). [citation needed], Māori still[update] is a community language in some predominantly-Māori settlements in the Northland, Urewera and East Cape areas. Tok Pisin (English: / t ɒ k ˈ p ɪ s ɪ n /, Tok Pisin /ˌtok piˈsin/), often referred to by English speakers as "New Guinea Pidgin" or simply "Pidgin", is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea.It is an official language of Papua New Guinea and the most widely used language in the country. Example: tāku pene (my pen), āku pene (my pens). [95] A few nouns lengthen a vowel in the plural, such as wahine (woman); wāhine (women). The passive voice of verbs is made by a suffix to the verb. [82] Westland's Waitangitaona River became two distinct rivers after an avulsion, each named in a differing dialect. In the 1860s, it became a minority language in the shadow of the English spoken by many settlers, missionaries, gold-seekers, and traders. [25], Before 1880, some Māori parliamentarians suffered disadvantages because Parliament's proceedings took place in English. [91] The lexical word forms the "base" of the phrase. "[80] Vocabulary and pronunciation vary to a greater extent, but this does not pose barriers to communication. [36] In 2019, a Te Reo card game (Tākaro) was created by Hamilton entrepreneurs. "Moriori and Māori: The Linguistic Evidence". Similarly, the Māori name for Stewart Island, Rakiura, is cognate with the name of the Canterbury town of Rangiora. In standard Māori, Wakatipu would have been rendered Whakatipua, showing further the elision of a final vowel. [92] Plurality is marked by various means, including the definite article (singular te, plural ngā),[93] deictic particles "tērā rākau" (that tree), "ērā rākau" (those trees),[94] possessives "taku whare" (my house), "aku whare" (my houses). [26] However, by 1900, all Māori members of parliament, such as Sir Āpirana Ngata, were university graduates who spoke fluent English. E. there are only two basic color terms, black and white. Vowel length is phonemic; but four of the five long vowels occur in only a handful of word roots, the exception being /aː/. A specialized development of human-machine language is seen in computer programming languages, which provide the means whereby sets of instructions and data of various kinds are supplied to computers in forms acceptable to these machines. This happens when people speaking two different languages have to work together, usually in some form of trade relation or administrative routine. "Māori Dialectology and the Settlement of New Zealand" In Sutton (ed.) Māori pronouns and possessives further distinguish exclusive "we" from inclusive "we", second and third. The answers may be āe (yes) or kāo (no).[127]. -anga, -hanga, -ranga, -tanga (-ness, -ity) (the suffix depends on whether the verb takes, respectively, the -ia, -hia, -ria or -tia passive suffixes) (e.g. Census data from Australia show it as the home language of 11,747, just 8.2% of the total Australian Māori population in 2016. Smith, G. H. (2000). In Tūhoe and the Eastern Bay of Plenty (northeastern North Island) ⟨ng⟩ has merged with ⟨n⟩. [75] The fact that English ⟨f⟩ gets substituted by ⟨p⟩ and not ⟨wh⟩ in borrowings (for example, English February becomes Pēpuere instead of *Whēpuere) would strongly hint that the Māori did not perceive English /f/ to be the same sound as their ⟨wh⟩. [8] The missionaries of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) did not have a high regard for this book. Sometimes, as the result of relatively permanent settlement and the intermixture of two speech communities, a pidgin becomes the first language of later generations, ultimately displacing both the original languages. Just as there are paralinguistic activities such as facial expressions and bodily gestures integrated with and assisting the communicative function of spoken language, so there are vocally produced noises that cannot be regarded as part of any language, though they help in communication and in the expression of feeling. The proper article a always being the phrase with the personal noun. For example, the English fricatives /tʃ/, /dʒ/, and /s/ are replaced by /h/, /f/ becomes /p/, and /l/ becomes /ɾ/ (the /l/ is sometimes retained in the southern dialect, as noted below). Once such a language becomes the first or only language of many people, it must acquire the resources (i.e., the complexity) to respond adequately to all the requirements of a natural language. [96] In general, bases used as qualifiers follow the base they qualify, e.g. Biggs (1998) developed an analysis that the basic unit of Māori speech is the phrase rather than the word. [29] These include: Based on the principles of partnership, Māori-speaking government, general revitalisation and dialectal protective policy, and adequate resourcing, the Waitangi Tribunal has recommended "four fundamental changes":[30], The changes set forth by the Tribunal are merely recommendations; they are not binding upon government. The indefinite article he is usually positioned at the beginning of the phrase in which it is used. [99], Locative bases can follow the locative particle ki (to, towards) directly, such as runga, above, waho, outside, and placenames (ki Tamaki, to Auckland). Therefore, Māori-speakers almost always communicate bilingually, with New Zealand English as either their first or second language. Although Māori is mostly analytical there are several derivational affixes: From missionary times, Māori used adaptations of English names for days of the week and for months of the year. "matua wahine" (mother, female elder) from "matua" (parent, elder) "wahine" (woman). K. R. Howe. [10], The spelling ⟨Maori⟩ (without a macron) is standard in English outside New Zealand in both general and linguistic usage. As reported in the 2013 national census, only 21.31 per cent of Māori (self-identified) had a conversational knowledge of the language, and only around 6.5 per cent of those speakers, 1.4 per cent of the total Māori population, spoke the Māori language only. [81] Maarire Goodall and George Griffiths say there is also a voicing of k to g – this is why the region of Otago (southern dialect) and the settlement it is named after – Otakou (standard Māori) – vary in spelling (the pronunciation of the latter having changed over time to accommodate the northern spelling). [70] With younger speakers, /ai, au/ start with a higher vowel than the [a] of /ae, ao/. Occasional and inconsistent vowel-length markings occur in 19th-century manuscripts and newspapers written by Māori, including macron-like diacritics and doubling of letters. Although some sign languages are related to spoken languages, often within a geographic community (such as American [spoken] English and American Sign Language), they are not necessarily direct translations. Taku is my, aku is my (plural, for many possessed items). New Zealand English has gained many loanwords from Māori, mainly the names of birds, plants, fishes and places. (1984). )(1994), pp. Like most languages, English has many racist expressions, words, and phrases that are unfortunately used widely and frequently. The modern Māori alphabet has 15 letters, two of which are digraphs: A E H I K M N O P R T U W NG and WH. The Waitangi Tribunal in 2011 identified a suggestion for language revitalisation that would shift indigenous policies from the central government to the preferences and ideologies of the Māori people. New Zealand Post recognises Māori place-names in postal addresses. While the preceding are all distinct languages, they remain similar enough that Tupaia, a Tahitian travelling with Captain James Cook in 1769–1770, communicated effectively with Māori. Arubans are especially fluent in Papiamento and Dutch, as those are the official languages of Aruba. How does someone become the last known speaker of a language? [19], A 1994 ruling by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council[20] in the United Kingdom held the New Zealand Government responsible under the Treaty of Waitangi (1840) for the preservation of the language. Provencal . Benton, R. A. (1994), pp. Anne Salmond[51] records aghee for aki (In the year 1773, from the North Island East Coast, p. 98), Toogee and E tanga roak for Tuki and Tangaroa (1793, Northland, p216), Kokramea, Kakramea for Kakaramea (1801, Hauraki, p261), toges for toki(s), Wannugu for Uenuku and gumera for kumara (1801, Hauraki, p261, p266, p269), Weygate for Waikato (1801, Hauraki, p277), Bunga Bunga for pungapunga, tubua for tupua and gure for kurī (1801, Hauraki, p279), as well as Tabooha for Te Puhi (1823, Northern Northland, p385). tā tātou karaihe (our class), tō rāua whare (their [dual] house); ā tātou karaihe (our classes). Current anthropological thinking places their origin in eastern Polynesia, mostly likely from the Southern Cook or Society Islands region, and says that they arrived by deliberate voyages in seagoing canoes[23]—possibly double-hulled, and probably sail-rigged. In the late 19th century, the colonial governments of New Zealand and its provinces introduced an English-style school system for all New Zealanders. Syllables in Māori have one of the following forms: V, VV, CV, CVV. Mātou refers to the speaker and others but not the person or persons spoken to ("I and some others but not you"), and tātou refers to the speaker, the person or persons spoken to and everyone else ("you, I and others"):[111], The possessive pronouns vary according to person, number, clusivity, and possessive class (a class or o class). [53] Missionary James West Stack recorded the scarcity of slates and writing materials at the Native schools and the use sometimes of "pieces of board on which sand was sprinkled, and the letters traced upon the sand with a pointed stick".[54]. "Māori Dialectology and the Settlement of New Zealand". The plural is formed just by dropping the t: tēnei (this), ēnei (these). This happens when people speaking two different languages have to work together, usually in some form of trade relation or administrative routine. Some 50,000 people report that they speak the language well or very well; Negation for copulative phrases, topicalized and equative phrases, the ongoing loss of older native speakers who have spearheaded the, complacency brought about by the very existence of the institutions which drove the revival, concerns about quality, with the supply of good teachers never matching demand (even while that demand has been shrinking), excessive regulation and centralised control, which has alienated some of those involved in the movement. Māori (/ˈmaʊri/; Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi] listen), also known as te reo ('the language'), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Its language code in ISO and Internet standards is en-NZ. WORDS.TXT - Free ebook download as Text File (.txt), PDF File (.pdf) or read book online for free. As in many other Polynesian languages, diphthongs in Māori vary only slightly from sequences of adjacent vowels, except that they belong to the same syllable, and all or nearly all sequences of nonidentical vowels are possible. Like all other Polynesian languages, Māori has a rich array of particles, which include verbal particles, pronouns, locative particles, articles and possessives. "The Maori language in New Zealand education". It is one of Haiti’s official languages (the other being French), and it shows lexical and grammatical features of both French and African languages. A good deal of sarcasm exploits these contrasts, which are sometimes described under the heading of paralanguage. [9] This orthography continues in use, with only two major changes: the addition of wh to distinguish the voiceless bilabial fricative phoneme from the labio-velar phoneme /w/; and the consistent marking of long vowels. Harlow, Ray (1994). While the northern river was named the Waitangitāhuna River, the southern river became the Waitakitāhuna-ki-te-Toka, using the more usual southern spelling (ki-te-Toka, "of the south", would be rendered ki-te-Tonga in standard Māori). )(1994), pp. The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks, 9 October 1769: "we again advancd to the river side with Tupia, who now found that the language of the people was so like his own that he could tolerably well understand them and they him.". Their language and its dialects developed in isolation until the 19th century. Signed languages and gesture languages have the same linguistic components as spoken languages. For example: ia (he/she), rāua (they two), rātou (they, three or more). Languages are used by human beings to communicate with other human beings. This followed a five-fold increase in complaints to the BSA, despite the use of the Māori language in itself not breaching any broadcasting standards. This development usually implies that the pidgin has become more complex grammatically and has increased its vocabulary in order to deal with the entire set of situations in which a native language is used. Now its sole official name is Aoraki / Mount Cook, which favours the local dialect form. It is found that it is the visual accompaniments and tone of voice that elicit the main emotional response. Thomas Kendall travelled to London with Hongi Hika and Waikato (a lower-ranking Ngāpuhi chief) in 1820, during which time further work was done with Professor Lee, who gave phonetic spellings to a written form of the language, which resulted in a definitive orthography based on Northern usage. [97], Universal bases are verbs which can be used passively. [78] Biggs has analysed North Island Māori as comprising a western group and an eastern group with the boundary between them running pretty much along the island's north–south axis.[79]. For the television channel, see, The New Oxford American Dictionary (Third Edition); Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition; Dictionary.com. The Māori phrase "kia kaha", "be strong", is frequently encountered as an indication of moral support for someone starting a stressful undertaking or otherwise in a difficult situation. Different first-person forms in both the dual and the plural are used for groups inclusive or exclusive of the listener. When used in sentences, statives require different syntax than other verb-like bases. Although any short vowel combinations are possible, researchers disagree on which combinations constitute diphthongs. The consonant phonemes of Māori are listed in the following table. The Māori language did not have an indigenous writing system. (1988). URL: Biggs, Bruce (1994). [122] The most common negator is kāhore, which may occur in one of four forms, with the kāo form only being used in response to a question. Kohanga reo Māori-immersion kindergartens throughout New Zealand use Māori exclusively. By the 1980s, Māori leaders had begun to recognise the dangers of the loss of their language, and initiated Māori-language recovery-programs such as the Kōhanga Reo movement, which from 1982 immersed infants in Māori from infancy to school age. From the mid 1800s, due to the Native Schools Act and later the Native Schools Code, the use of Māori in schools was slowly filtered out of the curriculum in order to become more European. This survey showed a 62% response saying that te reo Māori was at risk. This difference was the subject of considerable debate during the 1990s and 2000s over the then-proposed change of the name of the city Wanganui to Whanganui. Statistics have not been gathered for the prevalence of different levels of competence. The number of speakers of the language has declined sharply since 1945,[4] but a Māori-language revitalisation effort slowed the decline, and the language has experienced a revival, particularly since about 2015. [116] If the sentence is topicalized (agent topic, only in non-present sentences) the particle nā begins the sentence (past tense) or the mā (future, imperfective) followed by the agent/subject. [38], In March 2021, the Broadcasting Standards Authority (BSA) said it would no longer entertain complaints regarding the use of Māori language in broadcasts. [21], In 2008, Land Information New Zealand published the first list of official place names with macrons, which indicate long vowels. [122] Negative phrases, besides using kāore, also affect the form of verbal particles, as illustrated below. Japanese r). For example, the kiwi, the national bird, takes its name from te reo. ", As with many "dead" languages, there is a possibility that the southern dialect may be revived, especially with the encouragement mentioned. Within these broad divisions regional variations occur, and individual regions show tribal variations. Biggs, Bruce (1994). A language is a symbol system. )(1994), pp. It has been suggested that the petroglyphs once used by the Māori developed into a script similar to the Rongorongo of Easter Island. Accordingly, since March 2004, the state has funded Māori Television, broadcast partly in Māori. 'Ideas of Māori origins – 1920s–2000: new understandings', Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 4-Mar-09. There are several different negators which are used under various specific circumstances. You might not even be … [84] This same elision is found in numerous other southern placenames, such as the two small settlements called The Kaik (from the term for a fishing village, kainga in standard Māori), near Palmerston and Akaroa, and the early spelling of Lake Wakatipu as Wagadib. This will ensure that public bodies are compelled to contribute to, These regional public bodies and schools must also consult, A considerable number of governmental and non-governmental organisations continue to use the older spelling of ⟨, Double vowels are also used instead of macrons in long vowels resultant from.

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