The Viet Minh retaliated by attacking French positions in Haiphong and Hanoi, though these attacks were repelled by French artillery and naval guns. Covering a broad history from the arrival of the French in the second half of the nineteenth century … The United States also saw the Indochina situation as a potential example of The Domino Theory, which holds that if a country falls to communism, weaker surrounding nations also eventually fall. Ho was forced to assent to French re-occupation. In early 1949, the French, frustrated by a lack of progress in the war, changed tack. Aside from Ho Chi Minh, the Viet Minh’s most notable military leader was Vo Nguyen Giap. The Indochina and Vietnam Wars followed one another over thirty-five years, from 1940 to 1975, yet these two closely related conflicts are usually treated separately. North Vietnam was supported by the … The French also had requested an additional $400 million in assistance but, due to pressure from Washington for the French to make good on their promise to cooperate in Europe, they received only $385 million. The Indochina Wars (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1991, between communist Indochinese forces against mainly French, South Vietnamese, American, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese forces. At its peak, the CEFEO numbered more than 200,000 men, the majority Vietnamese. France was economically devastated by World War II so the French government had to mobilise the CEFEO on a shoestring budget. Their aim was to prolong the war while inflicting casualties on French soldiers and damage to French resources. Giap and Ho Chi Minh adapted Mao’s strategies to conditions in their own country. The First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War), was a major conflict in the Asian region known as Indochina, which is made up of the modern nations of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Having traveled to France to sign a cease-fire agreement and to negotiate eventual freedom for the Vietnamese people, Ho Chi Minh felt betrayed by the French government when the puppet government of Bao Dai was established in his absence in 1947. The article titled First Indochina War describes the war between the Việt Minh and the French in more detail. Sold. Meanwhile, a 15,000-strong CEFEO force was positioned to outflank the retreating Viet Minh and rout them in battle. The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War (also known colloquially as Vietnam or Nam as well as the American War to the Vietnamese) By: Ann Anderson. Ho’s attempt to garner support from the United States was useless because, unknown by him, the fate of Indochina had already been decided at the Potsdam Conference. United Action The first two years of the war (1947-48) was marked by sporadic fighting. The aim of the Manila Pact was to find peaceful means to resolve differences in Southeast Asia by establishing a council to determine how to implement the treaty and to provide consultation for military and other planning within the treaty area. Indochina - Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos 1950 - United States Recognition of Increased Sovereignty in the State of Viet-Nam: Note From the United States Ambassador-at-Large to the Chief of State of Viet-Nam… Quickview. By the end of the First Indochina War, 75,867 French soldiers had lost their lives and $3 billion had been spent in a war that led to the withdrawal of French troops after the 1954 Geneva Accords were signed. -1954: France out of Vietnam War so the U.S. wanted democracy called for by the Accords-Called for Vietnam to be divided at the 17th parallel-National elections would be held in 2 years so the Vietnamese could elect the leader -Marked an end to Indochina War but … Only one photo available . Most Viet Minh weapons had been retrieved from the retreating Japanese or seized from captured French. Giap recognised the need for strategies that made use of Viet Minh strengths and exploited French weaknesses. France had been a long-time occupier of Vietnam before 1954. The United States had funded approximately one third of France’s attempt to retain control of Indochina. It presents to a wide readership the best new scholarship prompted by the recent archival openings in Southeast Asia, the former USSR, China, and the West. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. This Vietnam War website is created and maintained by Alpha History. Indochina wars, 20th-century conflicts in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, with the principal involvement of France (1946–54) and later the United States (beginning in the 1950s). The wars included: Given the choice, however, Ho preferred French occupation over the Chinese in Vietnam, knowing the French would be easier to depose than the Chinese. 1947 January : Viet Minh forces, led by Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap , relocated to jungles of north-west Vietnam. Eisenhower He knew that the United States would benefit significantly b… The CEFEO was able to quickly capture and control the major cities, while the Viet Minh followed Giap’s strategic plan and withdrew into the mountains. Representatives from the eight original signatories pledged to defend against what it saw as an increase of communist military aggression against democracy. French businessmen and a small number of Vietnamese became wealthy, while most became poorer. Kindle Unlimited -- Korean War: A Captivating Guide to the Korean War History and Vietnam War: A Captivating Guide to the Second Indochina War just 2 of the War books, with others on other wars, and some of the major figures involved in them. When the news of Japan’s surrender in World War II arrived, the local Japanese military command turned over governance to the local authorities. By late 1946, the French had mobilised 50,000 troops in Vietnam and regained control of Saigon. After their 1944 return to Vietnam, Giap was tasked with overseeing the Viet Minh’s military forces. 4. The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), whose principal architect was Secretary Dulles, was originated from that defense treaty in an effort to stem further communist takeovers of countries in the Pacific region and to legitimize the United States' presence in South Vietnam. 5. See more ideas about first indochina war, war, vietnam war. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New … See more ideas about first indochina war, vietnam war, french army. A keen student of war and revolution, Giap studied the philosophy and tactics of famous leaders, from Sun Tzu to Napoleon, from George Washington to Leon Trotsky. The wars are often called the French Indochina War and the Vietnam War (q.v. your password In these bases, they planned to train and prepare Viet Minh soldiers for future campaigns. The figurehead emperor Bao Dai was put in charge of this nominally independent state. Log into your account. Finally, with their shattering defeat by the Viet Minh at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954, the… Read More; role of. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Vietnam War memory quiz – events 1946-1964, Vietnam War memory quiz – events 1965-1975, Vietnam War memory quiz – terms and concepts (I), Vietnam War memory quiz – terms and concepts (II). Date published: June 13, 2019 The decision not to allow free elections fueled the Viet Minh’s resolve to re-unify Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh compared this to a struggle between two powerful animals: “It is the fight between tiger and elephant. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. Nov 28, 2020 - Explore W. Rabbit's board "French Indochina" on Pinterest. Second Indochina War: A military conflict known commonly in the United States as the Vietnam War and in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America or the American War, that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1955 (with some sources citing 1956 or 1959 as the starting date) to the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975. Fighting broke out in Haiphong between the Việt Minh government and the French over a conflict of interest in import duty at the port. The colony had once supplied the French with not only important raw materials, but also vast wealth from its opium drug trade. The intention was to make the war costly and unpopular back in France. It was a major conflict in the Asian region known as Indochina, which is composed of the modern nations of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. In early 1946, the French landed a military force at Haiphong, and negotiations took place about the future for Vietnam as a state within the French Union. This war unfolded after the Japanese surrender in August 1945, which left Vietnam without a single national government. 3. The Vietnam War (also known as Second Indochina War or American War in Vietnam) lasted from 1 November 1955–30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day). From Indochina to Vietnam: Revolution and War in a Global Perspective. Viewer discretion is advised An in-depth look at the Vietnam War. Jun 19, 2017 - Explore Stu Montbriand's board "French Indochina War", followed by 117 people on Pinterest. Add to Wish List. Fighting broke out and approximately 1,000 Vietnamese were killed in a battle fought with armored units against a French gunboat firing from the harbor. In 1952-53 the Viet Minh began to move men and supplies into remote areas of French-occupied Laos. HANOI, Vietnam - HANOI, Vietnam - A maps showing the military campaigns of the First Indochina War against the colonial French armies. See more ideas about war, first indochina war, vietnam war. It was fought in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia between North and South Vietnam. Citizens were often held in prison for long periods without being charged, or they died from malaria, tuberculosis, or malnutrition. On November 23, 1946, the French fleet bombarded the Vietnamese sections of the city killing 6,000 Vietnamese civilians in one afternoon. The continuation of the war and some failed military operations led to France seeking a political solution. It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Updated October 16, 2019. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Jim Southey, Steve Thompson Despite heavily outnumbering French forces, the Viet Minh were hindered by severe weapons shortages, particularly a lack of artillery and munitions. More than 1,000 French paratroopers were dropped into the area, with orders to flush out the Viet Minh hierarchy. Billions of dollars spent in military aid and equipment from the United States ended after more than 58,000 American lives were lost and another 153,000 were wounded in what is sometimes called “The Impossible War.” The Indochinese Peninsula consists of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, formerly Burma; Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. This book seeks to tell the story of those wars as a single historical event. The First Indochina War, also known as the French Indochina War, began in December 19, 1946 and ended in August 1, 1954. With hostilities ended, Laos and Cambodia were recognized as independent countries, and Vietnam was partitioned along the 17th parallel. The term "Indochina" originally referred to French Indochina, which included the current states of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. It wanted no part of the new conflict.After World War II, France reoccupied Vietnam as part of its attempt to reclaim its prewar empire. The Indochina war was quickly followed by France's Algerian debacle, a far more consuming conflict in which the French public was more involved -- and in which many draftees served. Most Viet Minh weapons had been retrieved from the retreating Japanese or seized from captured French.By the end of 1946, Giap’s northern Viet Minh units boasted 60,000 men – but they were armed with only 40,000 rifles. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and also known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975. The war was fought by France, the long-time colonial ruler in the Indochina, and Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Laotian Communist rebel forces. Some of the footage is graphic in nature! Citation information The Vietnam War (also known as Second Indochina War or American War in Vietnam) lasted from 1 November 1955–30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day). Welcome! Aug 17, 2019 - Explore Guy Halsall's board "Indochina" on Pinterest. Where there had only been 700 advisors at the end of President Eisenhower’s administration in 1961, Kennedy increased that number to 12,000. During the First Indochina War, the Viet Minh encountered similar difficulties experienced by other anti-colonial forces. During the colonial era, French Indochina was made up of Cochin-China, Annam, Cambodia, Tonkin, Kwangchowan, and Laos. The First Indochina War (December 1946 to August 1954) saw the Viet Minh and French colonial forces battle for control of Vietnam. Directly after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, Vietnam's communist Viet Minh National Congress met in Tan Trao to ratify the Central Committee’s recommendation to begin a general uprising in the hopes of ousting the Japanese military command. While the CEFEO was better armed and equipped than the Viet Minh, it still suffered from severe shortages. The beneficiary of a French education, Giap graduated from the University of Hanoi, where he had studied history and politics. Sept. 18, 2008 - PRLog -- 1 was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN, or North Vietnam), allied with the Communist World, namely the Soviet Union and China against the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, or South Vietnam), and its allies — notably the United States military … In addition, Viet Minh soldiers were largely untrained and had little understanding of military organisation, discipline or strategy. World War II’s Prelude to the Vietnam War: The Birth of the Viet Minh. Giap was not daunted by these shortcomings. Buy Vietnam War: A Captivating Guide to the Second Indochina War by History, Captivating (ISBN: 9781981608386) from Amazon's Book Store. After seven years of fighting against the Viet Minh, the French governance in Indochina ended shortly after the bloody battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 when, at the brink of surrender, they were unable to obtain U.S. reinforcements or additional military aid. Secretary of State Dean Acheson stated that France’s demand was nothing short of "blackmail." Though Mao was writing of the situation in his own country, his pamphlet had lessons for Giap and the Viet Minh: “The principal characteristics of China’s revolutionary war are: a vast semi-colonial country which is unevenly developed politically and economically… a big and powerful enemy… and a small and weak [revolutionary] army… These characteristics determine the line for guiding China’s revolutionary war as well as many of its strategic and tactical principles. In 1954, during the French Indochina War, an Eurasian female smuggler and a group of French Foreign Legion mercenaries, infiltrate the enemy territory in order to destroy an arms depot. In November, French naval vessels bombarded the northern port city of Haiphong, killing large numbers of civilians. By mid-December, the two sides were openly at war. Nov 6, 2016 - Explore SkyLug's board "First Indochina War" on Pinterest. Anxious to re-establish their colony of 60 years, the French brought in forces in 1946 that included soldiers from Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. After France's defeat by the Vietnamese in the First Indochina War, the U.S. became embroiled in a second war, which Americans call the Vietnam War. Rather than bear the entire burden of containment in Southeast Asia, the U.S. began to favor what Secretary of State John Foster Dulles called “United Action.” Under the plan, a coalition of local forces would be called upon to assist with disputes. Buy Indochina and Vietnam: The Thirty-Five-Year War, 1940-1975 paperback / softback by Dennis D. Wainstock (ISBN: 9781936274659) from Amazon's Book Store. The Viet Minh had superior numbers but lack the weapons, munitions and technology of the French. At the Geneva Conference in Switzerland in July 1954, not only did the Geneva Accords effectively end French control over Indochina, but Cambodia and Laos were also granted independence from France, thus bringing an end to French Indochina. Second Indochina War (Vietnam War), Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). This change in tactics led to a decisive military confrontation at Dien Bien Phu. See more ideas about first indochina war, vietnam war, vietnam. The Indochina Wars were a series of conflicts in Southeast Asia from 1946 to 1989.. VNA officers were given the same command training as French soldiers. Model: nv-01334476. After the March 1945 coup d'état orchestrated by the Japanese against the French in Indochina, Roosevelt proclaimed that France was not competent enough to maintain its colonial possessions. French Indochina was the collective name for the French colonial regions of Southeast Asia from colonization in 1887 to independence and the subsequent Vietnam Wars of the mid-1900s. The medal on offer is an original full-size French campign medal die struck at the Paris Mint and described below: - France: Indochina Campaign Medal 1945-1954. Paris began negotiating with figurehead emperor Bao Dai about forming a government. While these groups welcomed Vietnamese independence, they harboured fears about communism and refused to support the Viet Minh, viewing them as lower class bandits led by political troublemakers. Maintaining the partitioning of North and South Vietnam by the 17th parallel that was first established at the Potsdam Conference, Ho Chi Minh was given the territory north of the 17th parallel while Emperor Bao Dai was given the area south of the 17th parallel. On November 23, 1946 the French fleet began a naval bombardment of the city that killed over 6,000 Vietnamese civilians in one afternoon according to one source or over 2,000 a… This was itself a tactical move because Viet Minh support was much weaker in the south, which contained higher numbers of Vietnamese middle class, Francophiles, Catholics, Confucians, Buddhists, political liberals and moderates. Once Hanoi fell, the Viet Minh declared its independence, established the provisional government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), and made Ho president and minister of foreign affairs. But if he stays agile and keeps his mobility, he will finally vanquish the elephant, who will bleed to death from a multitude of small cuts.”. See more ideas about first indochina war, war, vietnam war. The pact was signed by Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States on September 8, 1954, in Manila. 2. The situation did not improve until 1953 when the United States began supplying the CEFEO with military aid. The backing of the Vietnamese people was important because they could supply food, information and cover for Viet Minh troops (Giap often cited Mao Zedong’s saying: “A guerrilla soldier swims through the people like a fish swims through the sea”). This is known as the Haiphon… The United States involvement in the struggles of French Indochina began in 1945 at the Potsdam Conference and continued through many phases, culminating in a final withdrawal from Vietnam in 1975. Emperor Dai’s rule was short lived in that by 1955, Dai was overthrown and U.S.-backed Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem was instated as president. Instead of supporting Ho, the United States gave their support to France, which demanded to re-colonize Vietnam under threats of France’s non-cooperation in helping to rebuild Europe if the U.S. refused. This series offers original studies on the long struggles for Vietnam. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. End of Japanese occupation “The French had controlled Vietnam for a couple of generations,” explains Ed Moise, a professor of history at Clemson University and author of Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. ----- The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. The museum was opened on July 17, 1956, two years after the victory over the French at Dien Bien Phu. If the tiger stands his ground to fight, the elephant will crush him with its weight. Paris sought to undermine the Viet Minh by establishing the independent republic of Vietnam. French Medal for Indochina / Vietnam War 1945-1954. It contains 184,073 words in 261 pages and was updated last on June 11th. The goals of the North Vietnamese in South Vietnam were summarized in Ho Chi Minh's three-point battle cry: "Defend the North, Free the South, and Unite the Country." When the Paris Peace Accords were signed on January 27, 1973, America’s participation in the Second Indochina War officially ended. End of the Second Indochina War. Add to Cart. Everyday low prices and free delivery on … The tide of U.S. support receded when the hopelessness of a full-scale occupation of Indochina against the Viet Minh was realized in 1953. The Indochina Wars are generally numbered as three: the first being France's unsuccessful eight-year conflict with the Vietminh nationalist forces (1946–1954); the second being the war for control of South Vietnam, featuring an unsuccessful American-led intervention, ending in 1975; finally, the conflict in Cambodia, sparked by the Vietnamese invasion in 1978. The Southeast Asian people had different ideas, however. Danang Vietnam Vietnam War Military Photos Military History Hanoi First Indochina War French Foreign Legion Vietnam History War Photography - Shop for over 300,000 Premium Domains French; Bastille Day, 1954: Paratroopers of the French Foreign Legion parade through the streets of Hanoi, two months after their compatriots surrendered at Dien Bien Phu On September 2, 1945, Ho officially declared independence and renamed Indochina the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, or DRV. The Vietnam War or Second Indochina War (also known colloquially as Vietnam or Nam as well as the American War to the Vietnamese) By: Ann Anderson . It is clear that we must [recognise] the guerrilla character of our operations; oppose protracted campaigns and a strategy of quick decision… and instead uphold a strategy of protracted war and campaigns of quick decision; oppose fixed battle lines and positional warfare, and favour fluid battle lines and mobile warfare; oppose fighting merely to rout the enemy, and uphold fighting to annihilate the enemy; oppose the strategy of striking with two fists in two directions at the same time, and uphold the strategy of striking with one fist in one direction at one time.”. French Indochina was the collective name for the French colonial regions of Southeast Asia from colonization in 1887 to independence and the subsequent Vietnam Wars of the mid-1900s. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in … See more ideas about First indochina war, French foreign legion, Vietnam war. A major contribution to the national histories of France, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia." He was encouraged to form a national army, which later provided support to the French CEFEO. In the First Indochina War, the Communist North Vietnamese, supported by the Communist powers of the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union, fought to gain their independence from the French, supported by the French-loyalist Vietnamese and the United Nations. Due to political pressure from anti-communist Republican Joseph McCarthy and others in Washington, D.C., against Democrats who were seen as soft on communism’s spread throughout the world, President Harry S. Truman stepped up America’s involvement in the French re-colonization of Indochina under the Truman Doctrine. Meanwhile, Viet Minh cadres would move among the peasants, working to build up political support. It was a composite military force containing native Frenchmen, pro-French Vietnamese and troops from other French colonies in Africa, as well as units of the French Foreign Legion. His leadership had a profound effect on the outcomes of the First Indochina War and, later, the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War is also known as the Second Indochina War. By refusing to educate most Vietnamese children, literacy of France's re-colonized people reversed from 80 percent literate to 80 percent illiterate when the French left in 1954. Hoping to undermine the Viet Minh’s supporter base, France set up an alternative Vietnamese government, more moderate and pro-French than the Viet Minh. your username. Thus ended the conception that these states were united to form “French Indochina.” 3 February. The beginning of the First Indochina War was marked by an outbreak of fighting as a result of a violation in the cease-fire agreement when Viet Minh soldiers refused a French demand to leave Haiphong. In 1939, Giap was forced to flee Vietnam because of his anti-French political activities. What we know today as “the Vietnam War” was actually part of a broader series of conflicts over three decades that emerged in French Indochina after World War II. It is the only work to avoid nationalist, colonialist, and anticolonialist historiographies in order to fully explore the ambiguity of the French colonial period. The Second Indochina War, 1954-1975, grew out of the long conflict between France and Vietnam. Abuses perpetrated against the North Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Laotian people, which began as far back as the French occupation in the 1840s, galvanized many to fight a 30-year battle for their eventual freedom from foreign occupation. This was done by recruiting new soldiers but also by co-opting the ‘private’ armies run by cultists, warlords and gangsters. Switzerland had convened a multilateral conference in Geneva on April 26 to resolve various Cold War issues, but the fall of Dien Bien Phu focused deliberations on Indochina and factored largely in an agreement signed on July 20. On January 15, 1973, thanks to the progress in peace negotiations, Nixon announced the deferral of all offensive tactics in North Vietnam. A learned and articulate man, Giap spent most of the 1930s teaching history, while contributing to and editing several socialist newspapers. The Congress also elected nationalist Ho Chi Minh, leader of the National Liberation Committee, as the head of the provisional government. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New … French military units that participated in the First Indochina War were called the Corps Expeditionnaire Francais en Extreme-Orient (the ‘French Far-East Expeditionary Corps’, or CEFEO). The First Indochina War (called the Indochina War in France and the French War in Vietnam) began after the end of World War II in 1945 and lasted until the French defeat in 1954. While in exile in China, Giap joined up with Ho Chi Minh and other Viet Minh rebels. The North was supported by China and the Soviet Union while the South was supported by the United States, Thailand, Australia, and South Korea.